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Energodynamic system of physical quantities and concepts


To not mix with SI, unifying UNITS (explanation).

On Main

For whom and what for it is necessary?

Explanation of the basic terms

Forms and kinds of energy

Conditions of successful systematization

Classification of physical systems

The basic idea of system

Tables of physical quantities

In what novelty of a site?

     Forms and kinds of movement

     About a rotation angle in detail

     About movement of a body         on an orbit

     Systematization of force fields         quantities

     Systematization of oscillations         and waves quantities

     New dimension                          of temperature

     Generalization of the transport          phenomena

     Similarity criterions                         everywhere

     About a nature of dimension

The system approach in economy

History of a problem

To learn physics on new!

Training and visual aids

The catalogue of links

New pages of a site

Jokes on a subject of a site

About the author


Basic ideas of ESQC

ABSTRACT. Are listed the considerations that forms the basis when creating Energodynamic system of quantities and concepts ESQC. The shown and described those physical quantities that are accepted in ESQC as basic and conditional basic quantities.

The main considerations when creating ESQC

From the standpoint of physics:

All the forms of motion in nature are models of generalized form of motion, and all the forms of the field in nature are models of generalized physical field, so the equations that describe the movement forms and forms of field any particular physical system, are special cases of equations describing generalized physical system, including generalized physical field.

From the standpoint of metrology:

1. Systems of physical quantities should be based on the set of basic physical quantities, which provides us with Nature, and not on the fact that people take on your planet Earth, developing different systems of units.

2. A generalized coordinate state of the generalized physical system and generalized charge of the generalized physical fields represent two conditional basic quantities.

3. For two conditional basic quantities (generalized coordinate state and generalized charge) introduced conditional symbols for dimensions. Dimensional formula of conditional basic quantities ​​include dimensions of the basic quantities, erected in different degrees, including fractional.

4. In any particular form of motion and in any particular form of phisical field concretized dimensional formula of conditional basic quantities. Specific coordinates of state and charges determine the physical content of specific forms of movement.

From the standpoint of pedagogy:

Existing in physics concepts and notation are carefully analyzed in order to eliminate existing in this matter unsystematic character. If this elimination is not possible, gives recommendations on make relevant clarifications in metrological and terminological standards, manuals and reference books, as well as in the practice of teaching.

Basic physical quantities ESQC

The author of ESQC is based in his development on following basic physical quantities: energy (symbol of dimension E), length (symbol of dimension L), rotation angle (symbol of dimension А), the number of structural elements (symbol of dimension N), and time (symbol of dimension T). Accordingly, ESQC may be presented as a ELАNT-system of dimensions.

ESQC was described earlier in the works of I. Kogan (1998, 2004 and 2006). But it is constantly being upgraded, refined and complemented, in particular, on the pages of this site.

The main thing, that must be mind, – ESQC is the system of physical quantities, rather than system of their units. Author has repeated this every time, because many readers do not understand, why it is necessary to elaborate the novel system of physical quantities, when it is existing SI. However it must be noted that SI is not the system of physical quantities, but it is the system of the units of physical quantities.

In order to receive the exhaustive answer on this unobvious for many people question, it is necessary to see the article of I. Kogan (2007). On our site we also have the page, where popularly described the difference between the systems of physical quantities and the systems of their units. The author hopes that the interested reader will be able to gather all necessary information about basis of ESQC from these sources.

And now let's describe explicitly the basic physical quantities of ESQC.

1. The author thinks that it is obvious that the length L and time T are mutually independent and may by accepted as the basic physical quantities.

2. It is not so evident that the energy E may be classified as a basic physical quantity, though this idea has long been postulated and substantiated by A. Veinik (1968) and others after him. This problem is discussed in details on the pages of this site, dedicated to history of the problem. In particular, this idea is substantiated on pages, dedicated to the equation of state to and forms and the types of energy.

As a basic physical quantity, energy replaces the mass in the existing systems of units and, particularly, in SI. This does not contradict with laws of nature, because the mass is the measure of energy, it is proportional to energy. The mass is the derived value with reference to energy. Exactly, likewise the law of the conservation of mass comes out of the law of the conservation of energy as a particular case.

Energy, with the it's dimensional symbol E, was included as a basic physical quantity in the system of physical quantities, apparent, for the first time in work of I. Kogan (1993). Second similar reference about the same was found in work of D. Kontorov (1999), dedicated to the creation of the autonomous system of physical units.

3. Discussions concerning the rotation angle of body (symbol of dimension А) and about that, what a physical quantity it is namely (basic, derived or additional), is conducted not one dozen years. This discussion is reflected in chapter, dedicated to the rotational angle. Statement, that the rotation angle of body must be the basic physical quantity, is published in work of I. Kogan (2007). The provement of this statement is given on this site in the above-mentioned chapter.

4. The basic physical quantity − the number of structural elements (symbol of dimension N) – is well-known in metrology, but in another quality. It participates in the description of the basic physical quantity of system SI named "the amount of matter". The complete definition of the concept "the amount of matter" defines it as: "physical quantity equals to the number of structural elements composing the system" (A. Chertov, 1990). But in SI the term "number of structural elements" is attributed to particular case − to the amount of matter − and is applied only in molecular physics. In our opinion, a concept "number of structural elements" should be understood much wider.

The substantiation of the applying of this term as the number of the periods of oscillatory process and as the number of waves in waves form of motion is in detail described in the special chapter of this site, dedicated to the metrology of periodical processes. Naturally, the dimension of N was conserved. So far, the units for measuring of the number of structural elements are different in the different chapters of physics.

Let's analyze in brief the units of basic quantities in SI, which have not yet be above-mentioned, and let's show that they are well within the frames of ESQC.

5. The unit of the luminous intensity - cd (candela) is the derived from the energy unit.
6. The unit of the electric current - A (Ampere) is the derived from the unit of electric charge, and last is dependent on the units of energy, length and rotation angle which will be illustrated in equation (3) on this page and on a following page.
7. The unit of the thermodynamically temperature (in SI − K (Kelvin)) is the unit of the oscillation frequency, which is substantiated on the special page devoted to new dimension of temperature.

In this way, SI uses the same units of basic physical quantities, as ESQC, only with another dimension formula. Why did it happen? Because the metrology is the science of measurements, and for such units, as kg, A, K and cd were created the measuring standards. In the same time, the creation of etalon for unit J (Joule) is very difficult, and in any case, is not cost-effective. But the system of physical values needs not an measuring standards, unlike any system of units. The systems of physical quantities and the systems of the units have a different purposes and tasks.

The main derived physical quantities of ESQC

1. All 5 basic physical quantities of ESQC have explicit physical contents. However, during the observation of ESQC tables, in all tables in group of main derivated physical quantities strikes the eye the existence of another quantity, which figures in the equation of the state of every form of motion, namely: coordinate of state. This is not a basic physical quantity, but it must be considered more detail.

Notion "canonical coordinate" was introduced in 1788 year by French physicist J. Lagrange. He introduced it for the appellation of generalized mechanical quantities acquiring in each case a specific content. This notion had entered in physics in such context, and now it is applied for mechanical systems under the name "virtual displacement".

After 200 years A.Veinik (1968) came to the conclusion about existence of independent and not equivalent each other elementary forms of motion, each of which is uniquely determined by physical quantity, which is called by A.Veinik as "charge". But in fact, this is nothing more nor less than "canonical coordinate" of J. Lagrange, applied not only for the description of the state of mechanical system, but also for the description of the state of any physical system.

I. Kogan (1993) came to the conclusion that term "charge" by A.Veinik is less informative for the systematization of physical quantities, than the term "coordinate of state ", and he introduced this term in his work (1998) in tables of ESQC. The system approach led him to conclusion (1998, 2004) about the existence of generalized physical system, the particular cases of which are all existing physical systems. Later in his works (2006, 2007) this idea was illustrated in the form of the scheme and was called as a principle of identity.

Generalized coordinate of state is a generalized derived physical quantity, specific physical contents of which is uncovered through basic physical quantities in every specific form of motion. It retrieved the physical contents only in the specific model of physical system. Model of the coordinate of state accepted for this form of motion determines the contents of all specific form of motion.

The formula of dimension of the generalized coordinate of state must include itself the dimensions of all basic physical quantities, powering in different degrees, including the null one. I. Kogan (1998) proposed to assign the dimension of the coordinate of state the generalized symbol K. Thus, K may be presented as

K = EαLβAγNδTε . ( 1 )

The indicators of degrees α, β, γ, δ and ε are established for every specific form of motion individually. Very frequently some of them are equal to zero suggesting about the aspiration of physicists to simplify the models of the forms of motion.

In every specific form of motion the coordinate of state becomes the basic physical quantity. So, any form of motion in ESQC gains the own system of basic physical quantities, existing in 4-dimensional space ELTK.

2. In the generalized physical system in work of I. Kogan (2006), the generalized force field is included as a separate constituent. It has its own generalized charge of force field, dimension of which is labeled by symbol Q, as was proposed by G. Trunov (2004). The specific form of force field is the model of generalized force field with the charge being the model of the generalized charge of force field. The generalized charge of force field can be written in form of the dimension formula, similar to formula (1):

Q = Eα1Lβ1Aγ1Nδ1Tε1 . ( 2 )

From the Newton's law of universal gravitation and Coulomb's law' of charges interaction follows (on page) that the dimension formula (2) should be written in form:

Q = E½L½A½ . ( 3 )

If the specific form of motion interacts with the force field, it gains the own system of basic physical quantities, existing in 5-dimensional space ELTKQ. After decoding of values K and Q from equations (1) and (3), the dimension system ELTKQ returns to initial system of dimensions ELАNT. Thus, dimensions K and Q are introduced only for the simplification of the structure of the dimension formulae in the specific forms of motion, and their application, in principle, is not obligatory. In particular, the introduction of symbol Q eliminates the need to use the fractional degrees for dimensions.

The principle of identity, introduction of the generalized coordinate of state and generalized charge of force field have prompted the idea of design ESQC. The separate site is devoted to description of structure of these tables.

A little time is needed for mastering of the usage methodology of tables ESQC; this procedure is easy for understanding even to the last school class pupils.

These tables may be used also as (but could not be reduced to) a directory of SI units. But it is minor function of tables ESQC.

The determining equations for every physical quantities of any form of motion can be used for the practical purposes (but this is not a main destination of these tables).


1. Вейник А.И., 1968, Термодинамика. 3-е изд. (Veinik A.J., Thermodynamics) – Минск, Вышейшая школа, 464 с.
2. Коган И.Ш., 1993, Основы техники. (Kogan J.S., Bases of technics) – Киров, КГПИ. 231 с.
3. Коган И.Ш., 1998, О возможном принципе систематизации физических величин. (Kogan J.S., About a possible principle of systematization of physical quantities)– “Законодательная и прикладная метрология”, 5, с.с. 30-43.
4. Коган И.Ш., 2004, “Физические аналогии” – не аналогии, а закон природы. (Kogan J.S., “Physical analogies” are not analogies but the law of the nature)– http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/7438.html
5. Коган И.Ш., 2006, Обобщение и систематизация физических величин и понятий. (Kogan J.S., Generalization and systematization of physical quantities and concepts)– Хайфа, 207 с.
6. Коган И.Ш., 2007, Системы физических величин и системы их единиц – независимые друг от друга понятия (Kogan J.S., Systems of physical quantities and systems of their units are concepts independent from each other) – http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/8792.html
7. Конторов Д.С., Михайлов Н.В., Саврасов Ю.С., 1999, Основы физической экономики. Физические аналогии и модели в экономике. (Kontorov D.S., Michailov N.V., Savrasov J.S. Bases of physical economy. Physical analogies and models in economy)– М.: Радио и связь, 184 с.
8. Трунов Г.М., 2004, О физическом смысле формул размерностей электрических и магнитных величин. (Trunov G.M., About physical sense of dimensions formulas of electric and magnetic quantities)– “Законодательная и прикладная метрология”, 6.
9. Чертов А.Г., 1990, Физические величины. (Chertov A.G., Physical quantities)– М.: Высшая школа, 336 с.

© J. Kogan Date of the first publication 01.08.2006
Date of last updating 11.10.2008

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