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Energodynamic system of physical quantities and concepts
To not mix with SI, unifying UNITS (explanation).
Basic requirements for a physical quantity, in order that it can be considered as the natural base quantity, depend on what systematized: physical quantities or units. The difference between the system of quantities and systems of units is described in the article of J.Kogan (2011). For systems of quantities the base natural quantity is a quantity that does not depend on any other quantities. The base units for systems of units are chosen conditionally, for practical reasons, and therefore can not correspond to base natural quantities.
Natural base quantities should characterize the five categories included in the concept of "matter":
1. The basic property of matter - movement.
2. Characteristic of movement of matter - rotation.
3. Receptacle of matter - space.
4. The property, which determines the the sequence of events, - time.
5. Movement occurs in the medium, structure of which is characterized by a number of entities of the concrete medium.
In addition to basic 5 categories consider another 2 additional categories:
6. Level of structure of matter, defining the properties of the medium.
7. The rotation of the matter leads to a vortex formation process, which is the basis for creating a charges of the concrete medium and the shells of charged systems are field of the concrete medium. To each level of structure of matter corresponds its charge and its field.
This is reflected in the scheme. In parentheses indicated the symbols of the dimensions of the natural base quantities. System of quantities not necessarily identical to the system of units to existing of practical measurements.
By definition physical ouantity from JCGM 200:2012 (International vocabulary of metrology) physical quantity is "property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, where the property has a magnitude that can be expressed as a number and a reference".
The sequence of listing of the natural base quantities in the list of quantities is dictated by the structure of matter, the doctrine of which is developed by V.N.Pakulin (2012). It is based on cosmology (theory of Black holes and White holes). It is believed that is much of Universes and that the compression of the single Universe is carried by neighboring Universes. The compressible Universe is concentrated in the Black hole. And inside the Black hole is formed the White hole, the energy of which is equal to the energy of the all compressed Universe. In the White hole whole matter of the Universe is in a state formatter which is characterized only by the scalar potential energy of compression. At formatter has only one property, ie only one quantity - the energy.
At a critical value of the density of formatter White hole explodes. Formatter becomes mobile, ie arises movement that characterized by vector kinetic energy. To evaluate the properties of the movement there is a need in the two other natural base quantities: the characteristic of the space in which matter moves, that is, the length (distance), and the characteristic of time indicating the sequence of events, that is, duration.
In the next phase of the expansion of the Universe as a result of fluctuations of motion appears rotational movement associated with the vortex formation, a characteristic of which is rotation angle, the fourth base natural quantity.
To calculate the vortices it becomes necessary for a fifth base natural quantity - the number of objects (the number of entities). The list of natural base quantities finishes.
Vortices determine the structure the medium in which occur the vortex formation. The vortex objects become the charges on the each level and its shells become the fields at this level. The fields of charged systems interact with each other, but this interaction has estimated in derived quantity, the dimension of which consists of the dimensions of the natural quantities. Therefore, from the standpoint of the metrology presence of a structural element "charge + field" in the scheme are not necessarily, because it is not the natural base quantity. However, the absence in the system of quantities of this structural element leads to the appearance in dimensions and units of other derived quantities of fractional exponents. Therefore, conditional inclusion of the charge to a set of base quantities turned a convenient means to simplify the notation of dimensions and units.
Energy is the main property of matter. A detailed analysis of the term is given in a separate article. Energy can be either scalar or vector quantity. By the symbol of the dimension of energy accepted the letter E.
We add that in the work of the expert in systems engineering D.Kontorov and prominent experts in physical economy N.Mihaylov and Yu.Savrasov (1999) states: "The economy has two major measures: energy and money, generally speaking, reducible". Economy is social science, built on the social categories of society, from the above phrase can be concluded that the energy is the base quantity not only inanimate nature, but also for social societies. This conclusion emphasizes the importance of recognizing the energy as the natural base physical quantity.
Energy as a vector quantity will be denoted by symbol W. We write the product of energy W of the elementary time interval dt as a change in the physical quantity vector Н:
dH = Wdt . ( 1 )
The module of vector quantity H is known, it was introduced earlier by R.Feynman who named it action. The dimension of the action, according to equation (1), in the natural system of quantities is equal to ET, as the unit of action is equal to J s. The quantum of action is Planck's constant h. In mechanics, the physical quantity dS = Fdt, similar in structure to the quantity of dН = Еdt from equation (1), referred to the change in impulse of force. By analogy, we can say that the action Н is a impulse of energy as a vector quantity.
In modern physics, it is believed that the movement is characterized by energy (scalar), momentum (vector) and moment of momentum (vector). In the natural system of quantities, the momentum and the moment of momentum with respect to the energy as vector quantity are derived quantities. The concept "momentum", is now understood as "amount of movement", despite the same dimension that at impulse of force has a different physical content.
Movement of a matter by its nature is rotation of the vortices. Rotation of the vortex is characterized by rotation angle as in annular or in toroidal rotation. The value of an own rotation of the separate vortex and the direction of its rotation characterized by angular momentum. Angular momentum is different from the moment of momentum because the moment of momentum characterizes the motion of a charged system along a curvilinear trajectory, not a own rotation of system.
Movement of matter occurs in the space. Rectilinear motion should be considered as particular case of motion along a curvilinear trajectory with a radius of this trajectory tending to infinity. Quantitatively, it is characterized by a linear displacement and direction of movement is characterized by the momentum that determines the linear inertia, which incorrectly called inert (longitudinal) mass. The last two terms in physics are superfluous.
The base quantity time does not require a supplementary clarifications.
The movement of material objects (charged systems) may be exercised only in a medium consisting of these objects. Interrelation of the elementary (single) objects depends on their number in a material object. Therefore, in a set of base quantities is include the base quantity "number of objects" ("number of entities"). The structure of matter assume the presence of several levels and at every level the structural elements of medium are various, their characteristics are for this level of fundamental constants. For example, such constant as the electron mass, characterizes a structural element of the medium at the level "Substance". "Number of objects" as the natural base quantity is acceptable for any level of the structure of matter.
All quantities in the dimension of which is included in the first-degree dimension of charge of system Q, are quantities of first order (see. paper of J.Kogan 2011, p.8,9). According to them, in accordance with the law of universal gravitation of Newton and Coulomb's law, in which there is the product of two charges of the system, energy and length are quantities of second order. Therefore, the charge of system in relation to energy and length is derived quantity whose dimension is equal Q = E1/2L1/2. And the dimension of the elementary (indivisible) charge (e.g., electrons in the electric charge of system) is equal to E1/2L1/2N-1, where N indicates the number of elementary charges in the charge of system. This corresponds to units of J1/2 m1/2 to charge of system and J1/2 m1/2 ent-1 for a single charge.
The inclusion of the charge of system Q in a set of base quantities is conditional, it is not necessarily. But if the charge of system does not enter in the system of quantities as conditional base quantity, the dimensions in length and energy in the quantities of the second order will have dimensions with fractional exponents with the number 2 in the denominator. It took place in the CGS units in all electromagnetic quantities. Some scientists (applies to them such well-known physicist as Sommerfeld) called fractional exponents in degree of dimensions unnatural, but it is not. They were uncomfortable, but quite natural. A unit of electrical charge using the unit of electric current is introduced into the SI in order to get rid of inconveniences.
The sequence of symbols of dimensions of base natural quantities in the dimensions formula can be as follows: E, L, A. With regard to the symbol of dimension of time T, then it should be put at the end of dimensions formula as changes in time affects all physical quantities.
At the core the choice of set of natural basec quantities is the idea of movement of matter as a mechanical motion of material objects at any level of the structure of matter.
According to modern concepts for closed systems (see. Classification of physical systems), there are special functions of the coordinates and velocities, called integrals of motion characterizing the physical system as a whole. Among them are three particular integrals of motion possess the additivity property. By this property it is meant that the value of integral of motion for the entire system is the sum of the integrals of motion for each of the parts of the system. These three additive integrals of motion are called energy, momentum, and moment of momentum, they are kept unchanged.
At the core of conservation of energy W is the homogeneity of time T, characterized by the duration of the process of movement. At the core of the conservation of momentum is homogeneity of space, characterized by a length L. At the core of conservation of moment of momentum is isotropy of space, understood in the sense that the rotation of the system, characterized by the rotation angle A, not reflected in the properties of the system. Therefore, these four physical quantities with dimensions E, A, L and T are natural base quantities. In an article on the laws of conservation, it is shown that the basic is the law of conservation of energy. The law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of moment of momentum are derived from the law of conservation of energy as special cases.
Level structure of matter shows that the transition from a higher to a lower level is characterized by the fact that the more energetic, smaller in size and with large angular velocities material objects are combined into less energetic, big in size and with less angular velocities objects.
Each level of the structure of matter characterized by minimal (boundary) values of the characteristics of the material objects of this level are perceived as the fundamental physical constants. The material object with such boundary values is perceived as indivisible structural element of this level. He is a single object at any structural level. All material objects of any level consist of a whole number of structural elements at this level (the symbol of dimension N). The number of structural elements corresponds to "the number of entities".
With a decrease in values of the characteristics of individual material objects below the values of the fundamental physical constants of this level material objects moving at a higher hierarchical level with other values of the fundamental physical constants.This is schematically shown in the paper on level structure of matter. Uniformity of structural elements is the basis of the conservation laws of elementary particles, for example, the law of conservation of electric charge.
The above is the justification that the natural system of quantities must be ELANT-system of quantities. Such a system of quantities we called energodynamic because it is based on the energy and movement. About how this problem was considered in physics at different times, in detail described in the "History of the problem of systematization".
In the international system of quantities ISQ (see. International Dictionary JCGM 200: 2012) along with the natural physical quantities include conditional base quantities. The ISQ has 5 derived quantities, conditionally accepted as base quantities. This is mass, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, luminous intensity, and unit mole corresponds to the quantity, reciprocal of the amount of substance. The reasons for this are explained in detail in the article on the conditional base quantties.
In particular, the luminous intensity is derived quantity from the energy. An electric current is introduced in order to avoid fractional exponents in degrees of dimensions. And the introduction as the base quantity of the amount of substance with the unit mole is just a mistake, as describes in an article on the number of structural elements.
We recall that the introduction in any system of quantities conditionally as the base quantity the derived quantity is allowed to the existing standard. If only it was convenient and cost-effective to measure and create measurement standards. This is a foundation for the entire practical metrology. In contrast to the systems of units the systems of natural quantities in the presence of measurement standards do not need.
1. Kogan J.Sh., 2011. Nature of dimension and classification of physical quantities. - "Legislative and Applied Metrology, 4, p.p. 40-50.
2. Kontorov D.S., Mikhaylov N.V., Savrasov Yu.S., 1999, Fundamentals of physical economy. (Physical analogies and models in economics.) - M.: Radio and Communications, 184 p.
3. Pakulin V.N., 2012, Structure of Matter. Vortex model of microworld. - St. Petersburg, NTF "Istra", 120 p.
4. JCGM 200:2012 International vocabulary of metrology – Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM). 3rd ed. 2008 version with minor corrections. URL: http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/documents/jcgm/JCGM_200_2012.pdf,
© J. Kogan Date of the first publication 01.06.2009
Date of last updating 27.05.2015