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Energodynamic system of physical quantities and concepts


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Forms of energy and kinds of energy

АBSTRACT. It is shown that in the definitions of the forms and kinds of energy there is great variety, if not confusion. Therefore, the definitions of “forms of energy” and “kinds of energy” attached to the clarity and physical content. The scheme forms and kinds of energy are presented. The speculation around the “bio-energy” is criticized.

Confusion in the definitions of forms and types of energy

The concept of "energy" in the modern scientific, educational and reference books and especially in the media has acquired a large number of additions and definitions, which often bear no relation to physics. But in most physics of the issue of systematization of these additions and definitions also no definition. And above all, this concerns the concepts of "energy forms" and "energy kinds".

In the dictionary “energy is a scalar physical quantity that is a common measure of the various forms of matter motions and measure of transition of the matter movement from one form to another”. (Here and further our underscores in the quotes – I.K.). The same was said and the Great Soviet Encyclopedia: “Energy in nature does not arise out of nothing and not disappears, and she can only move from one form to another. “. In these two definitions, it is only the forms of movement and the forms of energy. But it can cause examples of confusion.

In the metrological reference of A.Chertov (1990) says this: “Different kinds of movement and interaction of matter correspond to different kinds of energy: mechanical (kinetic and potential), internal, electromagnetic, nuclear and others”. Here we are talking about the kinds of movements and kinds of energy.

The handbook of physics of B.Yavorskiy and A.Detlaf (1990) shows such a combination of words: “different kinds (forms) of energy”. Here the forms and kinds of energy are equated with each other. In the textbook on physics of I.Savelyev (2005, Book 1) energy is divisible only by kinds. Here is a quote: “In accordance with various forms of matter motions are considering different kinds of energy - mechanical, internal, electromagnetic, nuclear and others”. And further: “The mechanical energy is of two kinds - the kinetic and potential”. Здесь Here the kinds of energy correspond to the forms of movement.

O.Bondarenko and S.Kadyrov (2000) divided the energy by hierarchically higher and lower fields, they refer to the first fields kinetic, magnetic, mechanical energies and to the second fields - the potential, electric, heat energies. There do not understand why the mechanical and kinetic energies are equal in terms of their classification.

V.Etkin (2008) introduces the concepts of ordered and disordered energy, bringing the concepts of orderly work of technical devices designed to “purposeful transformation of some kinds of energy in the other”, and irregular work, in which there is no orderly movement of a physical system (its movement). However, energy can not be ordered and disordered, these adjectives can be attributed only to the forms of energy carriers movement. That they are moving, transferring the energy, the energy itself can not move, it is a physical quantity.

These data suggest that in modern physics and modern metrology energy for forms and kinds is not divided at all. If subdivided, the forms and kinds of energy are treated differently. However, such terms as "forms of energy" and "kinds of energy" should be required to give unambiguous, and it is done in works of I.Kogan (2006, 2007, 2009).

What should I call the forms of energy and kinds of energy?

Dictionary of language so interpreted the two concepts: “Form is the device, type, structure, nature of which is due to the content. Kind is concept that refers to a number of objects, phenomena with the same features and included in the more general concept of race”. Judging from this, the form is more general, and the kind is at least the general concept. Consequently, the kind must be in the form as its integral part. We apply this conclusion to the concept of "energy".

In the Great Soviet Encyclopedia in the dictionary entry "energy" states: “In accordance with various forms of matter motion are considering various forms of energy”. This follows directly from the law of conservation of energy, provided the page on the state equation, in which the increment of the system energy is the sum of the increments of energy in all motion forms of the system. In accordance with various forms of matter motion, should be considered various forms of energy: mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, electromagnetic, nuclear etc. (J.Kogan, 2006, 2007, 2009).

To find out, what then can be understood as kinds of energy, we repeat the generalized state equation (J.Kogan, 1998) as:
( 1 )

where dW – the increment of the total energy of the system;
i – number of elementary motion form;
n – the number of elementary motion forms in the system;
k – the order of time derivative;
m – the highest order time derivative;
q – the generalized state coordinate of the system.

This equation includes as an expression in parentheses dynamic equation, considered in detail on the page devoted to the transitions. In the dynamic equation of modern physics deals with three different types of counteractions, corresponding to m = 3. For k = 0 it is a rigidity counteraction, for k = 1 it is a dissipative counteraction and for k = 2 − it is inertness counteraction. Each of these three counteractions is a function of one of the three components of the energy in the i-th motion form: the potential energy, energy of dissipation and the kinetic energy. These three components should be called forms of energy. All this is illustrated by the scheme, all the terms which explained in detail on the page devoted to the classification of concepts related to energy, in thermodynamics.

The kinetic and potential energies belong to each form of energy

Quite wrong to attribute the kinetic and potential energy of only mechanical motion form, this is done, for example, in handbook of physics of B.Yavorskiy and A.Detlaf (1990). All kinds of energy should be treated only in a generalized sense, since they refer to any motion form and to any energy form. For example, there is a kinetic electric energy, and this is not the same as the kinetic mechanical energy. Similarly, the potential electrical energy is not the same as the potential mechanical energy. Not to mention the fact that there are two different kinds of potential energy in mechanics and electromagnetism.

Generally, the words "kinetic electrical energy," say just about electric power, not even referring to the word "kinetic". But the word "electric" defines the form of energy, but not the kind of energy, as may be offered the potential electrical energy and electrical power dissipation. Similarly, when two words are pronounced "kinetic energy", that usually have in mind only the kinetic mechanical energy, and the word "mechanical" when it is lowered. In terms of the above, it is vague.

As a result of mixing the concepts of "forms of energy" and "kinds of energy" arise false physical analogies. Proponents of the physical analogies theory are sometimes considered that the kinetic mechanical energy may be analogous to the potential electric energy, but the analogy is incorrect. Formally, this analogy can be justified in practice in some cases, but it will not reflect the physical content.

Kinds of energy can transform into each other while remaining belong to the same form of energy. The transition of different kinds of energy into each other is a consequence of redistribution of the values of these kinds of energy within the same motion form. This does not prevent the transfer of any kind of energy this motion form in any kind of energy of another motion form.

In various areas of modern physics is sometimes changed mathematical notation of the same kind of energy by the transition from one form of energy to another, and sometimes changing the name. But this is just difficult to understand the essence of what is happening.

Thus, a form of energy is determined only by the motion form. And in each motion form are the same kinds of energy. Their value is determined only by the design parameters of a motion form, because these parameters are included in the defining equation for the kinds of energy.

How can all kinds of energy?

Since in the dynamic equation modern physics considers only three terms, then we consider only three kinds of energy (potential, kinetic and dissipative). But in the dynamic equation there is no prohibition on the existence of other kinds of energy, determined by the order of the time derivative of k > 2. particular, the fourth kind of energy (for k = 3) interested the researchers in the processes of acceleration and deceleration of engines in power generation, transportation, aerospace, experts in the theory of impact. P.Pirnat (2005), for example, included in the system he created to the value of physical quantities associated with the fourth type of energy, although this procedure is reboot the used of P.Pirnat system by rarely physical quantities. We also believe that a fifth kind of energy (for k = 4) may be interested, for example, specialists in explosive processes.

Note also that the kinds of energy, determined by the even values of k, the parameters associated with conservative systems, and kinds of energy, determined the odd values of k, the parameters associated with non-conservative systems.

Note also that the dissipative energy is associated not only with the energy resistance, also with the qualitative change of energy. By the way, sometimes used the term "dissipative loss of energy" is incorrect, because the energy cannot be lost. More accurate to say about the dissipative losses of energy of ordered motion forms. Instead of the term "dissipation of energy" in some scientific papers used the term "degradation of energy". But this is not exactly. Does not degrade the energy; degrade the system's ability to produce mechanical work.

Among the number of counteractions of the external energy action of must be added the possible counteraction to the physical field associated with the movement of the system in this field, or with respect to its possible rotation of the field lines. This counteraction is a specific change of another kind of energy called in physics potential energy in the physical field, or in abbreviated form of the potential energy of position.

Since the defining equation for calculating the potential energy of position other than to calculate the potential energy associated with rigidity counteraction, then we are talking about two different kinds of energy. Therefore, the kind of energy that is associated with rigidity counteraction is called the potential energy of deformation. This kind of potential energy, in contrast to previous, related to the internal force field (the field of elastic forces).

What should I call the forms and kinds of energy exchange?

To be quite accurate, by the ordering of the physical quantities should not talk so much about forms of energy as the forms of energy exchange, and not so much on the kinds of energy as the kinds of energy exchange, which is reflected in the diagram shown below.

Such common concepts as the work of force, heat exchange, the amount of electricity have become nothing more than different forms of energy exchange in various motion forms. In contrast, the kinds of energy (potential, dissipative, kinetic) reflect the kinds of energy exchange within the same motion form. The causes of change of energy exchange are different kinds of counteractions of system, clarified on the page devoted to the transition process.

Rigidity counteraction of system UD corresponds to the change of potential energy dWp of system, dissipative counteraction of system UR corresponds to the change of the dissipative energy dWR of system and inertness counteraction of system UI corresponds to the change of kinetic energy dWk of system.

A general counteraction to the system, equal and opposite in sign to the energy action dW , impact on the system, shall consist of the sum of the changes of all three kinds of counteractions. These symbols correspond to the scheme of generalized dynamic equation of the system.

The biological form of energy, and speculation about her

By the forms of energy, of course, are the forms of energy of any type of radiation, including the so-called bio-energy. She was in the media give a mystical significance, although the latter can be attributed to the desire of illiterates in the physics journalists to give their articles attractiveness and character of sensation.

Dabblers in natural sciences authoritatively talk about good and bad energy, the positive and negative energy, about energy of the soul and about of the space energy. However, they do not bother, so that to determine exactly what they mean by the words "energy" and "energetics". The author tries in vain to find in the numerous publications on the topic "human energetics" a clear definition of this concept, yet it is not possible.

In the Great Soviet Encyclopedia is the definition of bio-energetics, but there is clearly specifies the fact that “all research in the field of bio-energtics based on a unique scientific point of view according to which the phenomena of life are fully applicable laws of physics and chemistry, and to the transformations of energy in the body - the basic laws of thermodynamics”. In the publications of the human energetics there is nothing.

Speaking about the energy in the sense that it is good or bad, does it mean to assign to energy properties, the nature of the missing. Energy is a measure of the movement, to talk about good or bad motion is meaningless. In short, journalists and psychics are played with a different term that they do not understand. Such a situation was possible for various reasons.

First, the energy associated with human activity, and in this sense the word is familiar to all people, and so well received in the media. Second, in other areas of science (not physics) concept of "energy" trying to interpret otherwise than in physics. Different understandings of the same term is not all that rare phenomenon. Why then should define a particular term before using it.

Third, the living creature is really related to the energy, especially energy radiation that emanates from all living beings and they also outside and enter. People are influenced by the energy of the magnetic field of the Earth, Sun and other celestial bodies, the energy of anthropogenic origin, etc. But this is an area of biophysics, not esoteric. The latter does not define the concept of "energy", speaking instead about some vague "forces of nature," "karma", "aura" and so on.

Effects of external radiation on humans depend not only on energy but also on the radiation frequency. And thus is more importantly, as the perception of radiation is usually a resonant character. The energy of a man perceived external radiation is usually so small that it is often not recorded until modern measuring tools because of their relatively high threshold of sensitivity. But in any case, the radiation energy is characteristic of the radiation in the physical sense of the word, and not in any other.

Of course, some radiations effect on human well-being positively, and others - in the negative. The same radiation at different people may be affected differently. To do this, and there are scientific methods of research, including bio-energetical and nothing to do with magic, witchcraft and mysticism do not have. Nobody is going to deny the wisdom of ancient Eastern medicine, but its achievements should be given to natural scientific explanation, and do not uses a verbal balancing act.


1. Bondarenko O.Y., Kadyrov S.K., 2000, Comparative characteristics of some of the provisions of traditional physics and alternative physics. Proc. "Another physics" (rus), -
2. Kogan I.Sh., 1998, On the possible principle of systematization of physical quantities (rus). - "Legislature and Applied Metrology" (“Законодательная и прикладная метрология”), 5, pp. 30-43.
3. Kogan I.Sh., 2006, A generalization and systematization of physical quantities and concepts (rus). - Haifa, 207 p.
4 Kogan I.Sh., 2007, Systematization and classification of definitions and additions to the concept "energy" (rus) -
5. Kogan I.Sh., 2009, Systematization and classification of definitions and additions to the concept "energy" (rus). - "Automation and IT in the energetics" (“Автоматизация и IT в энергетике”), 2-3, pp. 56-63.
6. Savelyev I.V., 2005, Course of General Physics, (5 volumes) (rus). - Moscow: AST: Astrel
7. Chertov, A.G., 1990, Physical quantities (rus). - M.: High School, 336 p.
8. Etkin, V.A., 2008, Energodynamic (synthesis of theories of transfer and conversion of energy) (rus). - St. Petersburg.: Science, 409 p.
9. Yavorsky, B.M., Detlaf A.A., 1990, Handbook of Physics (rus). 3rd ed. Moscow, Nauka, Fizmatgiz, 624 p.
10. Pirnat P., 2005, Physical Analogies. –;physanal.txt

© J.Sh. Kogan Date of first publication 12.02.2008
Last updated on 17.08.2008

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