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What is the matter, the medium, the substance, the movement?

ABSTRACT. A critical analysis of the existing definitions of the basic concepts of natural science, as the "matter", "medium", "substance" and "movement" without which it is impossible to systematize the physical quantities. Particular attention is paid to the causal relationship between these concepts.

What is matter?

Here are three definitions. The first of the Great Soviet Encyklopedia: “Matter includes not only all the directly observable objects and bodies of nature but also all those who, in principle, can be known in the future through improved means of observation and experiment. Whole world surrounding us is moving matter in its infinitely variety of forms and manifestations, with all its properties, connections and relationships“.

The second definition from Wikipedia: “fundamental concept associated with any objects that exist in nature, which we can judge thanks to our sensations“. We must assume that under the sensations are understood and information obtained by us from observations and measurements. But if there are objects of nature that we can not judge, because they are yet not feel, then, according to this definition, they are not matter.

The third definition of the encyclopedia "History of Philosophy": “a philosophical category, which denotes a substance in materialist tradition, has the status of first source (objective reality) in relation to consciousness (subjective reality)“. In this definition the matter is defined only in relation to consciousness, what is difficult to accept in physics.

Due to the development of cosmology and level physics appears hypothesis of V.Pakulin (2012), which assume that in the level structure of matter there is higher level than moving matter, called by the author of this hypothesis formatter. Formatter contained in the White hole, and as a result of her explosion it turns into a moving matter. The approximate scheme of the Universe circulation shown schematically in claim 6 article on level physics.

Interconnection of matter and motion.

The basic principle of philosophy and physics reads as: "In the world have nothing but moving matter, and moving matter can not move otherwise than in space and time“. This principle in a different presentation have proclaimed wise men of different peoples since ancient times. Leaving the reasoning about the authorship of this principle historians of science and philosophy, let's see how this principle is the basis for generalization and systematization of physical quantities.

In the Dictionary of Natural Sciences ( motion is defined as: “Movement is a form of existence of matter; way of being of material objects, consisting of their changes and interconversions“. This definition interprets a movement as a consequence of the existence of matter, because if there were no matter, nothing would move. According to this definition, motion is the category, which follows from the concept of "matter", secondary to matter.

The content of the concepts of "medium", "charge", "field".

Here is the scheme of the article on natural system of quantities. The movement of material objects occurs in a medium occupying the space with the sequence of events characterized by time. The concepts of "space" and "time" in the absence of motion of matter deprived the content and meaning of application.

In the second half of the twentieth century there was a trend in physics characterized by formalism in the systematization of physical quantities. Representatives of this trend consider that all physical quantities can be characterized only by space and time. A similar trend is torn off from reality, it leads to wrong conclusions. This beautifully written in the book of O.Repchenko (2008): “Space, as the time are no more than a way of describing the physical phenomena. It's just a language, peculiar artificial landmarks. Both of these concepts are used to describe physical processes, but they do not have physical properties. Physical processes can not influence the space and time, and vice versa.

Due to the development of cosmology and level physics appeared hypothesis of V.Pakulin (2012) that a lot of Universes and that in the leveled structure of separately taken Universe there is the highest level at where there is no movement of matter. After compression of the Universe by neighboring Universes her mother is concentrated in a Black hole, inside which is formed the White hole. At the level of the White hole matter is stationary, it is called the author of hypothesis formatter. As a result of explosion of a White hole the formatter becomes moving matter of an expanding Universe. The approximate scheme of circulation of matter in the separately taken Universe is show schematically in claim 6 in the article on leveled physics. Each level of the structure of matter has its own medium.

On a concrete level of matter structure are formed vortex rotating objects consisting of similar vortex objects of the medium of higher level structure. Each separate vortex object is a elementary (single) charge of given level of matter structure. And number of elementary charges in the physical system forms charge of the system, which creates a state of stress in the ambient medium of system. This state of stress is a physical field. For this reason, often meeting in modern physics definition of the field as a form of matter should be considered invalid. The physical field is the state of stress of medium. If the medium is not tense, not the physical field.

Each level of matter structure has its own medium, their charges and his field. At a higher level of the structure of matter formed smaller vortex objects with greater kinetic energy than at the lower level. Lowering the kinetic energy is converted into an equivalent increase in the potential energy conserved in the toroidal vortices (single charges) and is called the binding energy.

The concept "medium" refers to any level of the structure of matter, but mediums at different levels are different. Each level contains both its medium and mediums of higher levels. The concept "medium" is a generalized concept, it refers to all levels of matter. Physical vacuum is a medium corresponding to structural level, is now called "Electromagnetic field".

In addition with the concept of "medium" there is a concept "environment", the physical content of which is different. This is what surrounds the physical system regardless of the level at which it is located. The concept "environment" is used in classification of physical systems.

The content of the concept of "substance".

Excursions around encyclopedias and dictionaries showed that the most frequent such determination of substance: "kind of matter that, as opposed to physical field, has a rest mass". In this definition, the substance is opposed to physical field, and therein lies the fallacy of this definition. As shown above, the physical field is not the kind of matter. Therefore, is not true statement from the Dictionary of Natural Sciences ( "it is considered that the matter exists either in the form of substance or in the form of field“.

Single material objects of structural level "Substance" are neutrinos which constituting the single objects of different sublevels of substance: photons, electrons, positrons, protons, etc. Combined, these objects create atoms, molecules, ions, which form the sublevel "Makrosubstance". Thus, the substance has the property discreteness. This is what the substance differs from its environment, which is continuous. Similar point of view is present in some primary sources. Therefore, substance should contrast to environment (instead to the physical field). For the same reason, we can assume that at each level of the structure of matter, which has its own environment, has its own substance, there is not similar to the substance with which usually work in physics and chemistry.

Ether, physical vacuum, empty space, field medium.

As shown in the article, which describes point of view on history of views on the essence of the medium, on level of "Electromagnetic field" admitted the "ether", the physical vacuum, and in relativity theory speaks of the empty space. According to the historical regularity, notice of V.Pakulin (2004) and shown in the above article, the beginning of the XXI century is the period when science comes back to the fact that the medium is not considered an empty space. The fact that in term "physical vacuum" include the word "vacuum" is, in our view, a historical misunderstanding. Physicists of the twentieth century did not suit the previously applied term "ether", and they replaced it with the term "vacuum". And to somehow distinguish it from a technical vacuum, added the word "physical".

Perhaps physicists who agree that the physical vacuum is not emptiness, but medium, agree to reconciling term of O.Repchenko (2008) "field medium".


1. Pakulin V.N., 2004. Structure of Matter. -
2. Pakulin V.N., 2012, Structure of Matter. Vortex model of microcosm. - St. Petersburg, NTF "Istra", 120 p.
3. Repchenko O.N., 2008, Field physics or how the world works? Ed. 2-nd - M.: Gallery, 320 p.

© J.Sh. Kogan Date of first publication 01.08.2008
Last updated on 28.05.2015

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